Table 3

Multilevel regression models examining association between fruit and vegetable consumption and varying measures of supermarket access
Fruit Vegetable Fruit and vegetables combined
coef. s.e. p coef. s.e. p coef. s.e. p
Proximity via road network from:
Geometric centroid 0.036 (0.110) 0.740 0.119 (0.117) 0.308 0.142 (0.205) 0.488
Population-weighted centroid −0.026 (0.111) 0.814 0.076 (0.118) 0.520 0.039 (0.206) 0.851
Postal code −0.069 (0.102) 0.503 0.051 (0.109) 0.639 −0.036 (0.190) 0.851
Presence of a supermarket within:
0.4 km Euclidean buffer −0.031 (0.144) 0.831 −0.117 (0.150) 0.437 −0.122 (0.264) 0.646
1 km Euclidean buffer 0.034 (0.137) 0.805 −0. 093 (0.142) 0.514 −0.056 (0.250) 0.824
0.4 km road network buffer 0.351 (0.201) 0.081 0.124 (0.206) 0.548 0.469 (0.359) 0.192
1 km road network buffer 0.067 (0.123) 0.587 0.083 (0.127) 0.516 0.184 (0.224) 0.410
2 km road network buffer 0.341 (0.189) 0.071 0.086 (0.200) 0.668 0.417 (0.350) 0.234
Count of a supermarket within:
0.4 km Euclidean buffer 0.004 (0.099) 0.969 −0.078 (0.102) 0.444 −0.056 (0.179) 0.755
1 km Euclidean buffer 0.127 (0.040) 0.001 0.125 (0.042) 0.003 0.253 (0.073) 0.001
2 km Euclidean buffer 0.067 (0.018) <0.001 0.068 (0.019) <0.001 0.136 (0.032) <0.001
3 km Euclidean buffer 0.023 (0.011) 0.034 0.022 (0.012) 0.063 0.047 (0.020) 0.022
4 km Euclidean buffer 0.010 (0.008) 0.190 0.002 (0.009) 0.840 0.014 (0.015) 0.347
5 km Euclidean buffer 0.008 (0.007) 0.284 −0.001 (0.007) 0.898 0.008 (0.013) 0.547
0.4 km road network buffer 0.139 (0.155) 0.369 0.042 (0.158) 0.790 0.181 (0.276) 0.512
1 km road network buffer 0.070 (0.057) 0.223 0.024 (0.059) 0.687 0.108 (0.104) 0.295
2 km road network buffer 0.104 (0.022) <0.001 0.105 (0.024) <0.001 0.213 (0.040) <0.001
3 km road network buffer 0.054 (0.014) <0.001 0.051 (0.015) <0.001 0.107 (0.026) <0.001
4 km road network buffer 0.023 (0.009) 0.017 0.017 (0.010) 0.100 0.042 (0.018) 0.019
5 km road network buffer 0.009 (0.008) 0.268 0.002 (0.008) 0.835 0.013 (0.015) 0.391
Kernel density estimates
0.4 km Euclidean distance 0.021 (0.038) 0.587 −0.035 (0.040) 0.376 −0.009 (0.070) 0.896
1 km Euclidean distance 0.135 (0.094) 0.153 0.075 (0.099) 0.445 0.228 (0.173) 0.187
2 km Euclidean distance 0.627 (0.166) <0.001 0.585 (0.176) 0.001 1.238 (0.303) <0.001
3 km Euclidean distance 0.888 (0.233) <0.001 0.902 (0.250) <0.001 1.828 (0.430) <0.001
4 km Euclidean distance 0.947 (0.303) 0.002 0.906 (0.327) 0.006 1.915 (0.563) 0.001
5 km Euclidean distance 0.899 (0.373) 0.016 0.699 (0.402) 0.082 1.687 (0.698) 0.016

Models adjusted for age, sex and education.

Thornton et al.

Thornton et al. International Journal of Health Geographics 2012 11:29   doi:10.1186/1476-072X-11-29

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